Oceanic closed loop bio fuel industry | oceanic business | New-Atlantis™ |

The oceanic oil/gas industry is a massive industry with a worldwide infrastructure in place already. What we need to do is “close the loop of the process” to make it sustainable. A tanker unloading fossil fuel on a floating terminal (Adriatic LNG - floating concrete honeycomb structure - floating processing facility) to supply Europe with energy over a subaquatic pipeline that comes ashore in a port…

In a future tankers will be filled not on fossil fuel oil fields, but on giant oceanic kelp processing facilities that take the same CO2 quantity out of the athmosphere as the users of the fuel release back into the atmosphere when burning the fuel.

By regulating the quote fossil/kelp oil / humanity can actually “fine tune” the planetay atmosphere to avoid ice ages and global warming in the centuries to come.

A fine tuned climate regulation to allow for a undisrupted human development on earth, will be another technology necessary for humanity growing out of its childhood pants

fast hydrothermal liquefaction

Turning Humble Seaweed to Biofuel

A Norwegian research group has been able to achieve bio-oil yields of 79 percent from a common kelp, much higher than other attempts. The secret is to heat the kelp very quickly and bring it to the right temperature within seconds.

Nancy Bazilchuk, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
octubre 22, 2014

The sea has long been a source of Norway’s riches, whether from cod, farmed salmon or oil. Now one researcher hopes to add seaweed to this list as he refines a way to produce “biocrude” from common kelp.

“What we are trying to do is to mimic natural processes to produce oil,” said Khanh-Quang Tran, an associate professor in Norwegian University of Science and Technology’s (NTNU) Department of Energy and Process Engineering. “However, while petroleum oil is produced naturally on a geologic time scale, we can do it in minutes.”

Tran conducted preliminary studies using sugar kelp (Laminaria saccharina), which grows naturally along the Norwegian coast. His results have just been published in the academic journal Algal Research.

The Breakthrough

Using small quartz tube “reactors” — which look like tiny sealed straws — Tran heated the reactor containing a slurry made from the kelp biomass and water to 350 degrees C at a very high rate of 585 degrees C per minute.

The technique, called fast hydrothermal liquefaction, gave him a bio-oil yield of 79 percent. That means that 79 percent of the kelp biomass in the reactors was converted to bio-oil. A similar study in the U.K. using the same species of kelp yielded just 19 percent. The secret, Tran said, is the rapid heating.

Falling Short on Biofuel Production

Biofuel has long been seen as a promising way to help shift humankind towards a more sustainable and climate friendly lifestyle. The logic is simple: petroleum-like fuels made from crops or substances take up CO2 as they grow and release that same CO2 when they are burned, so they are essentially carbon-neutral.

In its report “Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2014,” the International Energy Agency (IEA) says that biofuel production worldwide was 113 billion litres in 2013, and could reach 140 billion litres by 2018.

That may sound like a lot — but the IEA says biofuel production will need to grow 22-fold by 2025 to produce the amount of biofuel the world will need to keep global temperatures from rising more than 2oC.

The problem is the biomass feedstock. It’s relatively easy to turn corn or sugar beets into ethanol that we can pump right into our petrol tanks. But using food biomass for fuel is more and more problematic as the world’s population climbs towards 8 billion and beyond.

To get around this problem, biofuel is now produced from non-food biomass including agricultural residues, land-based energy crops such as fast-growing trees and grasses, and aquatic crops such as seaweed and microalgae.

All of these feedstocks have their challenges, especially those that are land based. At least part of the issue is the fact that crops for biofuel could potentially displace crops for food.

However, seaweed offers all of the advantages of a biofuel feedstock with the additional benefit of growing, not surprisingly, in the sea.

Scaling Up

But turning big pieces of slippery, salty kelp into biocrude is a challenge, too. Some studies have used catalysts, which are added chemicals that can help make the process go more quickly or easily. However, catalysts are normally expensive and require catalyst recovery.

The UK study that resulted in a 19 percent yield used a catalyst in its process.

Tran says the advantage of his process is that it is relatively simple and does not need a catalyst. The high heating rate also results in a biocrude that has molecular properties that will make it easier to refine.

But Tran’s experiments were what are called screening tests. He worked with batch reactors that were small and not suitable for an industrial scale. “When you want to scale up the process you have to work with a flow reactor,” or a reactor with a continuous flow of reactants and products, he said. “I already have a very good idea for such a reactor.”

The Outlook

Even though the preliminary tests gave a yield of 79 percent, Tran believes he can improve the results even more. He’s now looking for industrial partners and additional funding to continue his research.

based on what is said here:
it is clear that any technology to supply for a base need like, energy, food, and housing of a 7 billion population needs to be supermassive and can not be based on land. The beauty of the kelp to oil project is that its basic industrial requirement water under heat and pressure for a pyrolysis process, exists naturally and freely available in supermassive quantities in the deep sea of the mid ocean ridge, where human activity will focus for a variety of other reasons (mineral, vent base alpha) – concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t50051529/vent-base-alpha-wired/ the oil will come in tankers from sea and supply land based urban centers just as it is done now – with no “brand new infrastructure” to develop, closing the global carbon cycle for sustainability and taking no landspace away from nature.


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